Mechanism of Action:
Thiazide diuretics act primarily on the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in the kidneys. They inhibit the sodium-chloride symporter, leading to a decrease in the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions. This results in increased excretion of water, sodium, and chloride, thereby reducing blood volume and blood pressure.
- Absorption: Generally well-absorbed orally.
- Distribution: Widely distributed in the body; some are protein-bound.
- Metabolism: Minimal liver metabolism.
- Excretion: Primarily renal excretion.
- Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Most commonly used; often combined with other antihypertensive agents.
- Chlorthalidone: Longer-acting, often used for hypertension.
- Indapamide: Also has vasodilatory properties.
- Hypertension: First-line treatment for many cases.
- Mild Heart Failure: Used in combination with other drugs.
- Edema: Less potent than loop diuretics but still effective.
- Kidney Stones: Can help prevent calcium-based kidney stones.
- Hypokalemia: Low potassium levels
- Hyponatremia: Low sodium levels
- Hypercalcemia: High calcium levels
- Hyperglycemia: High blood sugar levels
- Hyperlipidemia: High lipid levels
- ACE Inhibitors: Increased risk of hyperkalemia.
- Digoxin: Increased risk of digoxin toxicity due to hypokalemia.
- NSAIDs: Reduced diuretic effect.
- Severe renal impairment.
- Known hypersensitivity to thiazides or sulfonamides.
- Anuria (absence of urine production).
Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional before making any decisions related to medication or treatment.